Prelim Snippets 25-09-2019

1.New Species of Frog: Microhyla eos

Why in News?
  • A team of scientists from the University of Delhi and Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) discovered a new species of frog in Arunachal Pradesh and named it Microhyla eos.
  • Microhyla are a group of narrow-mouthed frogs (subfamily Microhylinae) that is primarily and widely distributed in Asia.
  • Commonly known as ‘Rice Frogs’ or ‘Chorus Frogs’, the genus currently comprises of 49 recognised species.
  • The new frog was discovered from riparian habitats in a primary evergreen forest in the Namdapha Tiger Reserve of the state, which is also the eastern-most protected area in the country.
  • The frog was confirmed to represent a distinct new species after detailed comparison of both, DNA and morphology, with all previously known members of the group found across South, Southeast, and East Asia.
  • Since Arunachal Pradesh is popularly known as ‘the land of rising sun’ or ‘the land of dawn-lit mountains’, the new species has been named as eos, after the mythological Greek goddess of dawn.

2.Gandhi Solar Park

Why in News:
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated ‘Gandhi Solar Park’at the Headquarters of the United Nations (New York) on the second leg of his visit to the United States.
  • It is a 50-kWh roof-top solar park which has 193 solar panels—each representing a member of the multilateral body.
  • The $1 million gift to the UN comes at a time when India has emerged as a clean energy champion.
  • The leaders also launched a United Nations (UN) postage stamp of Mahatma Gandhi, at the programme ‘Relevance of Mahatma Gandhi in the Contemporary World’ at the UN headquarters.
  • The event was hosted to celebrate the 150th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, which will underline the continuing relevance of Gandhian thoughts and values in today’s world.

3.World’s First Camel Hospital

Why in News?
  • World’s first camel hospital at Dubai is set to expand its facilities by an additional 50 per cent in response to the increase in demand for its services.
  • The camel hospital, built at an estimated cost of 40 million Dirhams, opened its doors in 2017 to meet the demand in the UAE for an advanced medical facility dedicated to treating camels.
  • The hospital’s customized equipment was adapted from equestrian medical equipment to accommodate camel treatment and the facility is also equipped with a mini-race track to rehabilitate camels after their medical procedures.
  • Since its inception, the hospital has attracted the interest of not only local owners but also camel breeders from across the world.
  • Camels are an integral part of the United Arab Emirate’s heritage. Historically, camels, known as the ‘Ship of the Desert’ were a source of transport as well as food and milk in the region.
  • The camel has continued to be an integral part of the UAE’s society and culture to this day, with select breeds used for camel racing, a sport highly popular among Emiratis.

4.Cyberdome Project

Why in News?
  • The Kerala police have recently set up a state-of-the-art lab complete with enabling software to intervene and crack down on the rising criminal activities over the darknet which is spearheaded by the Cyberdome.
About Cyberdome Project:
  • Cyberdome is a technological research and development centre of Kerala Police Department, conceived as a cyber centre of excellence in cyber security, as well as technology augmentation for effective policing.
  • It envisages as a high tech public-private partnership centre of collaboration for different stakeholders in the domain of cyber security and handling of cyber-crimes in a proactive manner.
  • One of the main objectives of the Cyberdome is to prevent cyber-crimes through developing a cyber threat resilient ecosystem in the state to defend against the growing threat of cyber-attacks by synergizing with other departments and nodal agencies of the state.
  • As of now it is in place with the Assam and Kerala Police.

5.Dadasaheb Phalke Award

Why in News?
  • The country’s highest film honour, the Dadasaheb Phalke award, conferred for “outstanding contribution for the growth and development of Indian cinema” will be presented this year to Amitabh Bachchan.
About the Award:
  • The Dadasaheb Phalke Award is India’s highest award in cinema. It is presented annually at the National Film Awards ceremony by the Directorate of Film Festivals, an organisation set up by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
  • The recipient is honoured for their “outstanding contribution to the growth and development of Indian cinema” and is selected by a committee consisting of eminent personalities from the Indian film industry.
  • The Dadasaheb Phalke award comprises of a Swarna Kamal (Golden Lotus), a shawl and a cash prize of ₹1,000,000.
  • Presented first in 1969(The first recipient of the award was actress Devika Rani), the award was introduced by the Government of India to commemorate Dadasaheb Phalke’s contribution to Indian cinema.
About Dadasaheb Phalke:
  • Phalke (1870–1944), who is popularly known as and often regarded as “the father of Indian cinema“, was an Indian film-maker who directed India’s first full-length feature film, Raja Harishchandra (1913).

6.The International Air Transport Association (IATA)

Why in News?
  • IATA has urgedregulatory bodies across the world to align their pre-conditions and schedule for re-entry of Boeing 737 MAX 8 into service.
About IATA:
  • The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is the trade association for the world’s airlines, representing some 290 airlines or 82% of total air traffic.
  • IATA is a Private organization promoting cooperation among the world’s scheduled airlines to ensure safe, secure, reliable, and economical air services.
  • It is headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
  • For consumers, IATA sets the international standard for services and business practices amongst member airlines. As an example, the three-digit airport codes used internationally are an IATA convention.
  • It should not to be confused with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) which is a governmental organization (also an UN specialized agency).

7.Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM)

Why in News?
  • Our honourable Prime Minister has recently attended the CARICOM meeting during his U.S.A tour. The Vice-President of Suriname has also voiced support for India’s actions in Kashmir during the meeting.
  • The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is an organisation of fifteen Caribbean nations which was established in the year 1973, having primary objectives to promote economic integration and cooperation among its members, to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared, and to coordinate foreign policy.
  • Caribbean Community and Common Market {CARICOM} consists of twenty countries and among them fifteen are full members and five are Associate Members. viz. Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Haiti, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St Kitts- Nevis, St Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago.
  • Its objective is to coordinate economic policies and development of member states and to aid the less developed member countries.

8.Coal Gasification

Why in News?
  • Last week, Odisha’s Talcher fertiliser plant was awarded a contract for starting a coal gasification unit for the production of urea and Ammonia.
  • It was part of the government’s initiative to revive closed fertiliser plants belonging to the Fertiliser Corporation of India Limited (FCIL) and the Hindustan Fertilisers Corporation Ltd (HFCL).
About Coal Gasification:
  • Coal gasification is the process of converting coal into synthesis gas (also called syngas), which is a mixture of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
  • The syngas can be used in a variety of applications such as in the production of electricity and making chemical products, such as fertilisers.
  • According to the International Energy Agency’s Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP), the coal gasification process holds good potential in the future, with coal being the most abundantly available fossil fuel across the world, and that even low-grade coal can be used in the process.

9.World Rhino Day

Why in News?
  • The World Rhino Day is celebrated every year on 22 September to celebrate the world’s five rhinoceros’ species, and to reflect on the challenges facing them.
  • This special day provides the opportunity for cause – related organizations, non–Governmental Organisation (NGO) zoos, and public to celebrate rhinos in their own unique ways.
About World Rhino Day
  • The World Wildlife Fund-South Africa in 2010, announced to celebrate World Rhino Day on 22 September every year since then.
  • The annual event took off on a global scale both on online and offline platforms when Lisa Jane Campbell of Chishakwe Ranch in Zimbabwe and founder of Annamitici joined hands with creative director Rhishja Cota in 2011 to create a massive awareness to protect all 5 species of rhinos from extinction.
  • The Activities on occasion of Rhino Day vary from one Participant to another with activities such as peaceful demonstrations, classroom projects, fundraising dinners, auctions and poster displays are observed globally. The Donors and partners for the cause are able to contribute to organizations and initiatives of their choosing.
  • World’s Five Rhinoceros Species Living in Africa and Asia:
    • Javan Rhinos (Rhinoceros sondaicus): Critically Endangered (IUCN)
    • Sumatran Rhinos (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis): Critically Endangered (IUCN)
    • Black rhinos (Diceros bicornis): Critically Endangered (IUCN)
    • White rhinos (Ceratotherium simum): Near Threatened (IUCN)
    • Greater One – Horned Rhinos (Rhinoceros unicornis): Vulnerable (IUCN)

10.India Water Week-2019

Why in News?
  • The President Shri Ramnath Kovind inaugurated the 6th India Water Week-2019 at New Delhi on 24th September.
India Water Week-2019:
  • The 6th edition of the India Water Week is being organised in New Delhi between 24th and 28th September 2019. It was organised for the first time in 2012.
  • The idea behind the Water Week is to have talks, discussions, seminars, and sessions to build public awareness, to get support to implement key strategies for conservation, preservation and optimum use of available water.
  • The theme for the 2019 event is “Water Cooperation – Coping with 21st CenturyChallenges”.
  • This year, the focus is on the need and importance of water use across all sectors.
  • It is organised by the Ministry of Water Resources in coordination with the nodal ministries of Environment, Forest and Climate Change; Agriculture; Urban Development; Rural Development; New and Renewable Energy; Power; Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation; the NITI Aayog and other PSUs, national and international bodies.
  • The conference will be attended by more than 1000 national and international delegates, and there will also be an exhibition
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